中世纪在欧洲文化形成中的作用(英文介绍)

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  Italy has not unified, the pope in order to maintain their independent status, established the Pope States, and forged a "Constantine gifts" document, claiming that the Roman city of Constantine the Great, pay Lateran Palace and other places to the Pope. Church rule is very harsh, and the control of the Western European culture. Padres can not get married, advocates abstinence for all people will be dedicated to God in heaven after death, on the other hand priesthood trading phenomena are very serious. Promote Trinity, original sin and other scholastic philosophy that strictly control the dissemination of scientific thought, and the establishment of religious courts punish heresy, school education also is to serve the theology. Pope lives in Georgia are high (590 years - 5004 years) period, the ancient Roman library was burned.

  彼特拉克把欧洲历史分为另八个 多阶段:一是古罗马与古希腊时期;二是“黑暗时期”。人文主义者们也相信,总有一天罗马帝国会再次兴起,重新恢复古典文化的纯洁性。十四世纪末与十五世纪初,人文主义者们认为另八个 多现代时期(Modern Age)然后开使英文了,不要 从逻辑上来讲,另八个 多“中世纪”然后形成了。

  The Middle Ages (about 395 years -50000), the history of Europe is an era (mainly in Western Europe), started by the demise of the Western Roman Empire, until the Renaissance, a period of the rise of totalitarian date. "Middle Ages" is the word from the 15th century to the latter part of humanism have begun to use. During this period of absence of a strong European power to rule. Feudal separatism brought frequent wars, resulting in the development of technology and productivity stagnation, the people living without hope in the suffering, the early Middle Ages or the Middle Ages in Europe and the United States generally referred to as the "Dark Ages", traditionally think this is the history of European civilization development has been relatively slow period.

  after the Reformation in Germany, Italy had a Renaissance, and extended to many European countries. This is the emergence of a lot of philosophers, writers, artists and scientists, like Dante, Boccaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Markey Arsenishvili, Shakespeare , Cervantes, Copernicus, Bruno, Galileo, Kepler, Harvey, Francis Bacon, and so on.

  行吗

  Charlie Haas Gold wrote: "the continuity of the history of the Middle Ages and Renaissance exclude these two historical period followed a huge difference between the possibility of modern research shows that the Middle Ages was once considered not as black and nor is it then stagnated; Renaissance is not so bright, not so suddenly. Italian Renaissance ago, a similar campaign, even if it is not so widely Chuan.

  Therefore, since a humanist, historians of "dark period" and "medieval" a more negative view. In the 16th and the 17th century Protestant Reformation Protestants, Protestants also written into corruption in the Catholic Church in this period of history. The accusation against Protestant, Catholic reformers were also presented with a "dark period" opposite picture: a social and religious harmony period, not the dark. The concept of "dark period" Many modern concept came from the negative, 17 and the 18th century Enlightenment and Voltaire, Kant in the works.

  在德国宗教改革后,意大利产生了文艺复兴运动,并扩展到欧洲不要 国家。这是涌现出了或多或少哲学家、文学家、艺术家和科学家,像但丁、薄伽丘、列奥纳多·达·芬奇、米开朗基罗、拉斐尔、马基雅维利、莎士比亚、塞万提斯、哥白尼、布鲁诺、伽利略、开普勒、哈维、弗兰西斯·培根等等。

  不要 ,原来的“中世纪黑暗时期”现被改为专指公元四一零年(或四五五年)到公元七五四(或八零零年)这段欧洲历史。

  another view: until AD 9th century, the vast majority of近古(Late Antiquity) scholars in accordance with St. Augustine's view that the history of mankind is in the sixth stage and final stage, "Bible" "Apocalypse", predicted that the "doomsday", meaning there was a dark; a generally accepted by historians that yes, "the dark medieval times," the word is from 14 Italian Renaissance humanist scholar World Pitt Iraq the inventions. He re-explore and travel around Europe published the Latin and Greek classical works, aimed at the source of Rome to regain the classical Latin language, art and culture, since 410 AD in Rome since the fall of the changes and what happened, and feel that it deserves research. Humanism is not to look at the history of religious terminology by Augustine, but by the community (school) terms, namely, by classical culture, literature and the arts to look at the history, so this九百年classical humanism to the development of culture said a period of stagnant "darkest period."

  作为日耳曼人一支的法兰克人,在486年打败高卢军队,由克洛维建立起墨洛温王朝的统治。克洛维通过和罗马梵蒂冈的联合,占领了罗马帝国在高卢的完正领土。随着法兰克王国不断的扩张,到了6世纪中叶,征服了勃艮第、图林根、巴伐利亚和萨可逊的或多或少部落,成为当时西欧最强大的国家,并建立了封建采邑制。751年,宫相矮子丕平成为法兰克国王,建立了加洛林王朝。在查理大帝统治期间国力达到最盛,吞并了伦巴德王国,夺取西班牙边区,占领东巴伐利亚,征服阿瓦尔汗国,西欧的大帕累托图土地都成为了法兰克王国的领土。查理大帝死后,法兰克王国处于兄弟战争而分裂,在843年8月签订《凡尔登条约》经国家分为西法兰克王国、东法兰克王国和意大利王国,现代的法国、德国和意大利的疆域本来以你什儿 条约为基础的。

  12世纪波恩市的建设情景。(现藏于波恩市立图书馆)中世纪时的经济主本来封建制的庄园式自然经济。出現了一批商业城市:巴黎、里昂、都尔奈、马赛、科隆、特里尔、斯特拉斯堡、汉堡、威尼斯、热那亚等等,形成了另八个 多以地中海为中心的贸易区。16世纪完后 ,兴起了工场手工业,最初是佛罗伦萨,然后是佛兰德尔,而圈地运动使英国太快发展。你什儿 经济模式加速了贸易,从而处于了地理大发现,发现了美洲新大陆。工场手工业也使进行战争的武器产生了飞跃,火炮和毛瑟枪逐渐代替了骑士的刀剑,也使旧式的城堡丧失了防御能力。而工场手工业业催生了资本主义经济。

  查理哈斯金写道:“历史的连续性排除了中世纪与文艺复兴这另八个 多紧接着的历史时期之间有巨大差别的然后性,现代研究表明,中世纪有的是原来被认为的不到黑,有的是的是不到停滞;文艺复兴有的是不到亮丽,有的是的是不到一个劲。意大利文艺复兴运动完后 ,另八个 多多这类的运动,即便它有的是不到广传。

  意大利一个劲不到统一,罗马教皇为了保持此人 的独立地位,建立了教皇国,然后伪造了《君士坦丁赠礼》文件,声称当年君士坦丁大帝把罗马城,拉特兰宫等地交给了教皇。教会统治非常严厉,然后控制了西欧的文化教育。教士不到结婚,主张禁欲,要求让让我们让让我们将一切献给上帝并能死后上天堂,此人 面圣职买卖问题图片图片又很严重。宣扬三位一体、原罪说等经院哲学,严格控制科学思想的传播,并设立宗教裁判所惩罚异端,学校教育有的是的是为了服务于神学。在教皇格高列里一世(590年 - 5004年)时期,古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬。

  Therefore, the original "dark period of the Middle Ages" is now being replaced refers specifically to the year 410 years (or Siwuwunian) by the year 754 (or 5000) during the European history.

  日耳曼人的另外一支盎格鲁人、萨克逊人、朱特人在5世纪中叶进入大不列颠群岛,在6世纪末,7世纪初,形成了7个王国,英国历史上称为七国时代。829年,威塞克斯王国吞并了或多或少6个王国,从此诞生了英格兰(England)。1066年,法国诺曼底公爵威廉以亲属关系要求继承王位,遭到拒绝后,以武力夺取了英王之位,称为“征服者威廉”(即威廉一世),建立了诺曼底王朝,然后这也造成了然后百年战争的根源。在亨利一世(50000年 - 1135年)统治时期,随着王权的加强,社会矛盾激化。1215年约翰(无地王)被迫敲定《自由大宪章》。1264年的内战期间,亨利三世被西门·德·孟福尔俘虏。1265年孟福尔召集国会,成为英国议会的开端。从1343年起,贵会分成了由贵族组成的上院和代表骑士、市民的下院,确立了议会君主制。与此共同,西法兰克王国演变成了法兰西王国,并加强了王权,罗马梵蒂冈被迫迁往法国南部的阿维农,并自上而下召开三级会议(一级为高级教士,二级为贵族,三级为富裕的市民),也形成了议会君主制。

  浪漫主义运动后的十九世纪下半个世纪,考古学取的了很大的进展,或多或少不为完后 的学者所知的历史文献与文物被挖掘和架构设计 出来。而1939年发现的公元六二五年代的萨顿骺(Sutton Hoo)宝窟,以及中世纪研究的著名学者查理哈斯金(Charles H. Haskins)的研究发现,使得“黑暗时期”看上去不再是另八个 多共要的词汇。二战完后 ,在英语国家中的专业学者文献里,“黑暗时期”你什儿 词渐渐地消失。

  经济

  12 century scenes of the building of the City of Bonn. (Now hidden in Bonn City Library), the main economic medieval feudal system is a natural economic Manor. A batch commercial cities: Paris, Lyon,尔奈, Marseille, Cologne, Trier, Strasbourg, Hamburg, Venice, Genoa, etc., to form a center for the Mediterranean trade zone. The 16th century, the rise of the workshop handicraft industry, initially Florence, followed by Dover Randall, and enclosure movement to the United Kingdom to develop rapidly. This economic model has accelerated trade, thereby geographical discovery has found the American New World. Workshop handicraft industry also conducted a weapon of war produced a leap, artillery and Mauser gradually replace the Cavaliers swords, but also lost their old castle defense capability. Workshop handicraft industry and the industry gave birth to the capitalist economy.

  Pitt Iraq to European history is divided into two stages: First, ancient Rome and ancient Greece period; second is the "dark period." Humanist also believe that the day will come when the Roman Empire will rise again, to regain the purity of classical culture. The 14th century and early 15th century, humanism to believe that a modern period (Modern Age) has already begun, so logically speaking, a "Middle Ages" has been formed.

  中世纪(约395年—50000年),是欧洲历史上的另八个 多时代(主本来西欧),由西罗马帝国灭亡开使英文计算,直到文艺复兴完后 ,极权主义抬头的时期为止。“中世纪”一词是从15世纪后期的人文主义者开使英文使用的。你什儿 时期的欧洲没另八个 多多强有力的政权来统治。封建割据带来频繁的战争,造成科技和化产力发展停滞,人民生活在毫无希望的痛苦中,不要 中世纪然后中世纪的早期在欧美普遍称作“黑暗时代”,传统上认为这是欧洲文明史上发展比较缓慢的时期。

  德国的前身东法兰克王国地方政权很强大。911年加洛林王朝开使英文后,国王由地方权贵选出,但更多是名誉,国王的权利和地方诸侯平等。你什儿 特点被历史学家认为是其热衷于对外扩张的意味着。951年,奥托一世率军占领了伦巴德地区,其后的奥托二世进军罗马。1155年腓特烈一世攻占米兰,教皇为其加冕,成为神圣罗马帝国,全盛时领土包括了德意志全境,意大利中、北部,西西里岛,捷克、瑞士、爱沙尼亚、普鲁士。在腓特烈一世遭到1八个城市联合抵抗(即伦巴第联盟),并被打败。腓特烈一世在第三次十字军东征时溺水而死,占领区也纷纷独立。

  the addition of a Germanic Anglo Saxons, and Jutes in five middle of the 21st century into the British Islands, in the 6 century, the early 7th century, and formed a seven kingdoms, the British history as Heptarchy. 829, the annexation of the Kingdom of Wessex other six kingdoms, from the birth of England (England). In 1066, William the Duke of Normandy in France relatives requirement inherit the throne, after refused to force the king to win a position known as the "conquerors William" (William一世), the establishment of the Normandy Dynasty, but it also caused a hundred years later the root causes of the war. In Henry I of England (50000 - 1135) rule, with the strengthening of monarchy, social contradictions intensify. In 1215 John (no land Wang) was forced to sign the "Magna Carta of freedom." In 1264 the civil war, the Simon Demengfuer Henry III, was captured. 1265 Mengfuer convene Congress as the beginning of the British Parliament. From 1343 onwards, will be divided into your composition by the aristocracy and the upper house of representatives of the Cavaliers, the lower house of the people, established a parliamentary monarchy. At the same time, the Kingdom has evolved into the Dissemination of Western Astronomy Frankfurt, the French Kingdom, and to strengthen the monarchy, Rome Vatican forced to move to the south of France Avermectin farmers, held three meetings and top-down (for senior-level cleric, 2 for nobles, three for the wealthy people), also formed a parliamentary monarchy.

  文化

  medieval castle with the Western Roman Empire was to eliminate by the Germanic people, has emerged a group of barbarians countries. Then, Frank, Lumbard, Austria Dojak, Burgundy, and Wang in - Alan, East Gothic,西哥特, such as Anglo Savimbi's kingdom can be established. The war between the Kingdom, of which Anglo Savimbi may Thompson, Frank existence of the Kingdom of time rather long.

  the early 19th century, the Romantic movement to change this "dark period" negative one-sided trend. It presented a picture of harmony: social and environmental harmony, rooted in the nature of life; at the same time in response to the Enlightenment rationalism completely beyond sentimental in a rational way, and by the emerging industrial revolution brought about by the environmental damage and pollution. Romanticism to the issue of the "dark period" viewpoint, can still celebrate today that the number of cultural activities and holiday periods, displaying the adoption of the customs and historical events occurred see.

  十九世纪初, 浪漫主义运动转变了你什儿 对“黑暗的时期”负面一边倒的趋势。它给出了一幅祥和的图画:社会和环境的和谐,扎根于大自然的生活;共同也敲定启蒙运动中的理性主义以理性完正超越感性的作法,以及由正在兴起的工业革命所带来的环境破坏与污染。浪漫主义者对待“黑暗时期”的观点,仍并能在今天的或多或少庆祝那个时期文化活动与节日中,通过所展示出来的风俗与处于的历史事件中看多。

  economy

  历史

  中世纪的城堡随着西罗马帝国被日耳曼人所灭,相继出現了一批蛮族国家。先后有法兰克、伦巴德、奥多亚克、勃艮第、汪达尔-阿兰、东哥特、西哥特、盎格鲁·萨可逊等王国建立。王国之间战争不断,其中盎格鲁·萨可逊、法兰克王国处于的时间比较长。

  然后,自起人文主义者起,历史学家们对“黑暗的时期”和“中世纪”也多持负面观点。在十六与十七世纪基督教新教徒的宗教改革中,新教徒们也把天主教的腐败写进这段历史中。针对新教徒的指责,天主教的改革者们也给出了一幅与“黑暗的时期”相反的图画:另八个 多社会与宗教和谐的时期,或多或少本来黑暗。而对“黑暗时期”或多或少现代的负面观念是来自于,十七与十八世纪启蒙运动中的康德和伏尔泰的作品中。

  history

  as the Falankeren a Germanic people, in 486 years to defeat the Crow army, established by the Clovis Merovingian rule. Clovis Rome and the Vatican through the joint, occupied by the Roman Empire in the entire territory of the Crow. With Frank Kingdom constant expansion, the six middle of the 21st century, the conquest of Burgundy, Thuringia, Bavaria and Savimbi's can be some tribes, as was the most powerful country in Western Europe, and established a feudal fiefdom. 751, the Palace of the Dwarfs Pi-as Frank King, established the Carolingian. In查理大帝rule strength to最盛, Lumbard annexation of the Kingdom to win Spain border region, occupied East Bavaria, conquer阿瓦尔khanates, most of the land in Western Europe have become the territory of the Kingdom of Frankfurt.查理大帝after his death, Frank brothers in the Kingdom of separatist war, in 5843, the August signing of the "Treaty of Verdun" Dissemination of Western Astronomy Frankfurt by the state into the Kingdom, the East of Frankfurt, and the Kingdom of the Kingdom of Italy, modern France, Germany and Italy is the territories to this treaty-based.

  另外三种观点认为:一个劲到公元九世纪,绝大多数的近古(Late Antiquity)学者都按照圣奥古斯丁的观点,认为人类是处于历史的第八个阶段也是最后另八个 多阶段,即《圣经》在“启示录”里预言的“末日”,故而有黑暗之意;另八个 多被历史学家普遍接受的说法是,“中世纪黑暗时代”你什儿 词,是由十四世意大利文艺复兴人文主义学者彼特拉克所发明的。他周游欧洲重新发掘和出版经典的拉丁和希腊著作,志在重新恢复源本罗马古典的拉丁语言,艺术和文化,对自公元四一零年罗马沦陷以来的变化与所处于的,认为不值得研究。人文主义者看历史并不按奥古斯丁的宗教术语,本来按社会(学)的术语,即通过古典文化,文学和艺术来看待历史;不要 人文主义者把这九百年古典文化上发展的停滞时期称为“黑暗的时期”。

  Romantic movement of the 19th century under half a century, archaeologists from the considerable progress, many scholars do not know for prior literature and the history of cultural relics were excavated and sorted out. The 1939 discovery of the Year Liuerwunian generation epiphyseal Sutton (Sutton Hoo)宝窟, as well as renowned scholars from the Middle Ages on the Charlie Haas (Charles H. Haskins) study found, the "dark period" no longer look is an appropriate vocabulary. After World War II, in the English-speaking countries in the professional literature scholar, "dark period" word gradually disappear.

  参考资料:

  East Germany, the predecessor of Frankfurt, the Kingdom is a strong local government. 911 years after the end of Carolingian, King elected by the local bigwigs, but more is the reputation of the king's rights and local leaders who equality. This characteristic was its keen historians think is the reason for the external expansion. 951, Otto I率军occupied Lumbard region, the subsequent Otto II enter Rome. 1155腓特烈一世captured Milan, for the coronation of Pope as the Holy Roman Empire, when the territories, including the heyday throughout Germany, Italy, the northern part of Sicily, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, Estonia, Prussia. In腓特烈一世jointly by the 15 cities resistance (that is, Lombardy Union), and was defeated.腓特烈lives in the Third Crusade, drowning death, the occupied territories have also independent.

  culture